14 Nov. 2013. 12 Dec. 2013.
However, the protests of 2000 did not solve the problems of unequal distribution of water and dwindling water resources. These floods do damage to low lying areas, but as the glaciers disappear forever, drought takes affect that damges crops further.According to the IPCC 4th assessment report "Many small glaciers, e.g., in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru, will disappear within the next few decades, adversely affecting people and ecosystems.
The differing response between the Chimor and the Moche reflect a difference between climate preparedness today in Bolivia. 5 pm . This case has implications for the entire Andean region and much of Southern South America.
Chan Chan depended on large step down water wells for water, but forced labor also built extensive irrigation canal systems that relied on a timetable of water delivery to different areas. Many national industries were privatized and in this context the water rights were sold to a private company for the city of Cochabamba. These frightening photos of lightning from a hurricane above Miami, Florida in the USA were taken after the storm left a trail of destruction in the Caribbean. World Bank argued that the lack of piped water to poor areas was because of a corrupt government and that if Cochabamba privitized its water resources then the market would be able to expand water to the poor. See today's front and back pages, download the newspaper,
13 Sep. 2013. Recently, Bolivia took Chile to the International Court of Justice to regain access to the Pacific Ocean, which Chile firmly denies. Recently, La Paz, for the first time, asked for citizens during Carnival to limit their water use. This leads to an increase in more protest out of anger at the government’s response to protect private business. "Distribution of Family Income- Gini Index." 15 Nov. 2013. Even after the Cochabamba Water Protests and water was named a human right, cities like El Alto and La Paz do not have full time water technicians. As these water resources run out it has further destabilized class relations as rich residents continue to receive water while poorer neighborhoods have been cut off. Perera, Amantha. In this case warming temperature caused by anthropogenic climate change leads to glacial melt. (2012). It read: "Even after crossing the Atlantic, a lateral collapse of Cumbre Vieja volcano could impose a great sequence of waves of 10-25 m height on the shores of the Americas.". 11 Dec. 2013.
The boy was Victor Hugo Daza and he was shot in the protest on his way home from a part time job by a mililtary sharp shooter. Figure 2: Cochabamba Metropolitan Area and Surrounding landscape, Deploy the ICE Search and Sort Tool (SST), Figure 1 Regional map and relative location of Cochabamba within Bolivia, IPCC Localized Environmental Impacts due to human causes ("regional climate projections"), Figure 4 Regional Water Scarcity Causal Loop Diagram, Figure 4 Cochabamba Water Protest Causal Loop Diagram, Figure 5 Liters available per person per year for selected regions. Fagan states that “Droughts and El Ninos were realities etched into every coastal farmer and fishers minds. Number 288, December, 2013, I. Web.
As the water decreases and feeds into this causal loop the government will have to ration out the water even thinner. Guardian [London] 23 Apr 2009, n. pag. Web.
Evo Morales was elected as the first indigenous leader of Bolivia after years of rule by the white minority. In the future the type of conflict and its origins might change. The type of conflict that arose is rooted in the problem of inequality and poverty in Bolivia. There was one reported fatality of 17 year old boy Victor Hugo Daza. A tsunami warning has not been issued (Does not indicate if a tsunami actually did or will exist). While it is a good sign that it has dropped since the Cochabamba Water Protests, the top 10% still own 45.4% of the income share while the lowest 10% only have 0.7% (Income). The contract was given to the company Aguas de Tunari, which was part of the larger company International Water (Frontline). The thought process behind this is that "countries receiving loan assistance from the World Bank and the IMF are often discouraged from heavily subsidizing public services, as such expenditures counteract IMF and World Bank formulas for reducing debt, controlling inflation and attracting foreign investment" (Frontline). As is often the case, the World Bank required that the Bolivian government undertake privatization of state industries to increase private investment.
Radar. 12 Dec. 2013. On April 3, 2000 the protests spread beyond Cochabamba to big cities like La Paz and surrounding rural areas. He told Express.co.uk: "A wave could curve towards Britain, depending on the power, but it will have the biggest impact on the Americas.". Hourly.
If water stress increases it might add new importance for Bolivia to gain access to the ocean. A report put forward by Dr Day said waves up to 80 feet in height could strike the Americas should a landslide occur in the Canary Islands. "Leasing the Rain." Despite similarities, as seen in table 1, Chimor was a rigid hierarchical society that could forcibly build water systems while modern Bolivia is a democracy, which comes with its limitations. II. The Guardian in 2009 reported "The tribal chief, 62-year-old Felix Quispe, 62, says the river that has sustained them for millennia is drying up. PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. New York, Boston and Miami could all be struck by the monster wave, while Central and South American tourist hotspots like the Bahamas, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago would also in the firing line. Georgetown University Center for Latin American Studies 17 (2009): 3-38.
Web. "The Key Effects of Climate Change."
The rapid glacial retreat has been due to rising temperatures caused by climate change. UPI[Washington] 01 Sep 2010, n. pag. Web. During the second protests the leader of the protests Oscar Olivera was arrested along with many others (Frontline).
The protests turned violent with government forces injuring hundreds of people and killing at least one person. The level of conflict started off low and escalated into a national protest. Environment Aspect
Env. This resulted in mass protests across the country and the blocking of many of the countries highways. Use up and down arrows to change selection. From 1879 to 1883 Chile fought a war against Bolivia and Peru over access to minerals and resources. TRADING ECONOMICS | 300.000 INDICATORS FROM 196 COUNTRIES. Springer.
2002. The city of Bingol was nearly destroyed. As seen in the graphic below, the Andes will be one of the most water stressed regions in the world with decreasing amount of water per person. The initial problem of water scarcity still exists with raising rates on water politically unfeasible. Rangecroft, Sally, Stephan Harrison, Karen Anderson, John Magrath, Ana Castel, and Paula Pacheco.
The significance of the causal loop is that Bolivia is back where it started with no current means of solving their water scarcity problem.
Web. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (2004): 1-52.
The Chimu State was able to adapt to these intense irregular weather patterns by investing in food security. IPCC 4th Assessment Report 11.4 (2007): 894-95. Large cities with mass rural migration.
"Bolivia's Long March Against Evo Morales: An Indigenous Protest."
This sets in motion a feedback loop that ends up increasing migration while decreasing available water resources. However, melting glaciers that create water scarcity coupled with vast wealth and income inequality make it so that political tensions are rising. Cochabamba is the third largest city in Bolivia and before privatization had a chronic water shortage with water being diverted to middle income and industrial sectors instead of the poor. "FRONTLINE/WORLD . Large cities supported by rural irrigation system.
The World Bank saw the privatization of the water system as a way to solve this problem.
A spokesman for the NOAA said: "The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2009 Samoa tsunami, the 2010 Chile tsunami, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan tsunami: In less than 10 years, these four events focused the world's attention on the rare but very real threat of tsunamis.
newspaper archive. Inequality.
An increase in police forces eventually leads to violent clashes which decreases government approval. Since these areas provide some of the world most important natural resources such as copper, water scarcity could affect these industries that will have implications on a world wide scale. But independent modelling has shown the same things as me.
In Bolivia, glaciologists have seen glacial retreat of 48% between 1963 and 2006. As glacial melt increases water scarcity increases as there is a less steady flow of water to the region. The initial Cochabamba Water Protests were concluded when the government terminated the water and sanitation contract with Aguas del Tunari.
"Although a tsunami cannot be prevented, the impact of a tsunami can be mitigated through community preparedness, timely warnings, and effective response.". La Paz receives 15% of their water from glacial melt in the wet season and 27% in the dry season ("Andean Water").
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